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Characteristics of a forklift and its types

Forklifts and their operation

For most people, lifting carts or forklifts mean the same thing, but nothing could be further from the truth. Traditionally lift trucks, also called forklifts, do not really classify into them. As the name suggests, the act of "lifting" just above the floor helps to lift the pallet off the ground. On the other hand forklifts they can easily cope with lifting loads to high heights, even up to several meters.

Forklift is the common name for a truck. It is a mechanical wheeled vehicle driven by an engine. It is used in close transport and storage, and it is mainly used for unloading, transporting and loading work.

The lift truck with a lifting drive mechanism has a fixed platform, forks or load handling devices. It easily carries palletized and non-palletized loads to a convenient height, thus enabling storage or retrieval of goods. Therefore, trolleys that do not have a lifting mechanism are not subject to the UDT regulations. By mechanical drive, we mean all kinds of drives (combustion, hydraulic, electric) that can do without the action of human muscle forces during the lifting of goods.

Classification of industrial trucks

Division of forklifts due to being subject to technical supervision:

  • Not subject to technical supervision, and therefore not being UTB machines (Equipment for Near Transport):
  • platform trolleys (loaded),
  • tractor trolleys (pulling / pushing),
  • trolleys.
  • Subject to technical supervision of the UTB, i.e. forklift trucks (called forklifts or forklifts):
  • lift trucks with an operator lifted along with the load (competence trolley - otherwise known as a specialized trolley),
  • gantry forklifts,
  • front-side forklifts (double-sided),
  • side loaders (two-sided),
  • side loaders (one-sided),
  • internal mast platform forklifts,
  • inner mast stacker trucks with load (fixed mast),
  • internal mast lift trucks, not carrying the load,
  • front stacker trucks.

Drive type classification:

  • with electric drive - mains (powered by alternating current) or battery powered (powered by direct current),
  • with internal combustion engine - low-pressure (petrol or gas) and diesel (diesel),
  • with another drive, for example, hybrid.

Division taking into account the method of targeting:

  • right-hand trolleys - a trolley driven by an operator,
  • platform trolleys - the operator, standing on the platform, drives the trolley,
  • trolleys with a driver's seat - the operator, resting on the seat on the trolley, drives it,
  • remotely controlled trucks are driven by an automatic system.

Types of trolleys according to functional features and their design:

  • charged (platform, cable, specialized),
  • lifting (platform, fork, lifting, single- and double-bar gantry, specialized),
  • tractor (with a mast inside not covering the load, with an extendable carriage, with a mast inside containing the load, front, side, front-side extension, specialized),
  • tractor (single-axle, two-axle, semi-trailer, specialized.

For safety reasons, every forklift truck should be equipped with a capacity diagram that takes into account the height of the load being lifted and the center of gravity on the forks. However, it should be remembered that when the load is being lifted, the truck is not completely stable and must be constantly monitored to prevent it from tipping over. The load should be conducted with the forks positioned 30 centimeters above the ground and the mast tilted towards the operator.

Reach forklifts are an indispensable device when working in warehouses, where we have contact with a large amount of goods. What matters most is efficiency and safety at work, so you should choose the right trolley that will increase the efficiency of employees and guarantee their comfort. Reach forklift equipment varies. They use a drive system based on AC motors, thanks to which the employee has an assured driving speed, and can also carry the load with full power. The motor used also translates into energy efficiency. The upside is that it requires no maintenance. It ensures durability as well as a long service life of forklifts. In addition, the trolleys can have a side battery extension system based on rollers, which significantly simplifies their replacement. Forklifts are also equipped with devices that automatically control the driving dynamics in terms of steering wheel steering. They have the function of regenerating energy when we slow down, automatic speed reduction, and an automatic mechanism for raising and lowering the mast.

Telehandlers or forklifts?Forklift or telehandler?

Like every industry, the construction area is also constantly developing. In the category of lifting and lifting services, operators with special qualifications are appreciated. Thanks to this, they can count on stable employment and high remuneration in a good company.

We have already mentioned forklifts, but what about telescopic loaders?

Telescopic loaders belonging to machines and vehicles are most often used in the construction industry, but not only. They are multi-purpose and universal, so they can also be successfully used in agriculture, forestry and various industries. A modern telescopic loader performs the functions of many vehicles and machines, among others a basket lift, mower, plow, seeder or just a forklift.

Telescopic loaders are divided according to:

  • Constructions:
  • chassis (articulated wheel, rigid frame wheel),
  • bodies (non-rotating, swivel).
  • Drive type:
  • hydrostatic-mechanical drive,
  • hydrokinetic-mechanical drive.
  • How to change the direction of travel:
  • steering with the help of a crab movement,
  • steering only the front wheels,
  • steering with all four wheels.

The telehandler is assembled in such a way that the operator's cabin and the telescope are rigidly connected to the travel module, and thus cannot move horizontally. Moreover, these loaders, depending on the type, have one pair of supports - only at the front, or none at all, then the load is lifted on the wheels. The rotary loaders, on the other hand, are equipped with turntables, which helps the operator's cabin with the telescope to rotate horizontally even by 360 °. Rotary telehandlers are equipped with front supports and rear supports, the loading weight is placed on the side once, then on the rear, and the next time on the front of the device.

Companies are much more likely to invest in the purchase of a telescopic loader due to the above-mentioned advantages, versatility and functionality. We mentioned earlier that the telescopic loader performs the functions of many variants (with attachments), but additionally the powers allow it to operate forklifts and all its derivatives. In our opinion, this has a very large impact on the choice, because compared to forklifts, the entitlement to them only allows the use of only a forklift. To put it bluntly, the popularity of forklifts has clearly declined in favor of the prestigious telescopic loaders wading upwards.

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